Prague Med. Rep. 2021, 122, 73-79

Remarks on the Hormonal Background of the Male Equivalent of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Luboslav Stárka, Michaela Dušková

Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic

Received November 18, 2020
Accepted April 30, 2021


1. Arias-Santiago, S., Gutiérrez-Salmerón, M. T., Buenadía-Eisman, A., Girón-Prieto, M. S., Naranjo-Sintes, R. (2011) Sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of hyperglycemia in patients with androgenetic alopecia. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65(1), 48–53. <>
2. Aversa, A., La Vignera, S., Rego, R., Gambineri, A., Nappi, A. E., Calogero, A. E., Ferlin, A. (2020) Fundamental concepts and novel aspects of polycystic ovarian syndrome: expert consensus resolutions. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne) 11, 516. <>
3. Azziz, R., Sanchez, L. A., Knochenhauer, E. S., Moran, C., Lazenby, J., Stephens, K. C., Taylor, K., Boots, L. R. (2004) Androgen excess in women: Experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89(2), 453–462. <>
4. Burghen, G. A., Givens, J. R., Kitabchi, A. E. (1980) Correlation of hyperandrogenism with hyperinsulinismus in polycystic ovarian syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 50(1), 113–116. <>
5. Cannarella, R., La Vignera, S., Condorelli, R. A., Calogero, A. E. (2017) Glycolipid and hormonal profiles in young men with early-onset androgenetic alopecia: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7801. <>
6. Cannarella, R., Condorelli, R. A., Mongioì, L. M., La Vignera, S., Calogero, A. E. (2018) Does a male polycystic ovarian syndrome equivalent exist? J. Endocrinol. Invest. 41(1), 49–57. <>
7. Cannarella, R., Condorelli, R. A., Dall’Oglio, F., La Vignera, S., Mongioì, L. M., Micali, G., Calogero, A. E. (2020) Increased DHEAS and decreased total testosterone serum levels in a subset of men with early-onset androgenetic alopecia: Does a male PCOS-equivalent exist? Int. J. Endocrinol. 2020, 1942126. <>
8. Carey, A. H., Chan, K. L., Short, F., White, D., Williamson, R., Franks, S. (1993) Evidence for a single gene effect causing polycystic ovaries and male pattern baldness. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 38(6), 653–658. <>
9. Cooper, H. E., Spellacy, W. N., Prem, K. H., Cohen, W. D. (1968) Hereditary factors in the Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 100(3), 371–387. <>
10. Di Guardo, F., Cerana, M. C., D’urso, G., Genovese, F., Palumbo, M. (2019) Male PCOS equivalent and nutritional restriction: Are we stepping forward? Med. Hypotheses 126, 1–3. <>
11. Di Guardo, F., Ciotta, L., Monteleone, M., Palumbo, M. (2020) Male equivalent of polycystic ovarian syndrome, metabolic and clinical aspects. Int. J. Fertil. Steril. 14(2), 79–83.
12. Dumesic, D. A., Oberfield, S. E., Stener-Victorin, E., Marshall, J. C., Laven, J. S., Legro, R. S. (2015) Scientific statement on diagnostic criteria, epidemiology and molecular genetics of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Endocr. Rev. 36(5), 487–525. <>
13. Dušková, M., Stárka, L. (2006) The existence of male equivalent of polycystic ovary syndrome – The present state of issue. Prague Med. Rep. 107(1), 17–25.
14. Dušková, M., Čermáková, I., Hill, M., Vaňková, M., Šámalíková, P., Stárka, L. (2004) What may be the markers of the male equivalent of polycystic ovary syndrome? Physiol. Res. 53(3), 287–294.
15. Fauser, B. C., Tarlatzis, B. C., Rebar, R. W., Legro, R. S., Balen, A. H., Lobo, R., Carmina, E., Chang, J., Yildiz, B. O., Laven, J. S., Boivin, J., Petraglia, F., Wijeyeratne, C. N., Norman, R. J., Dunaif, A., Franks, S., Wild, R. A., Dumesic, D., Barnhart, K. (2012) Consensus on women’s health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): The Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil. Steril. 97(1), 28–38.e25. <>
16. Ferriman, D., Purdie, A. W. (1979) The inheritance of polycystic ovarian disease and a possible relationship to premature balding. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 11(3), 291–300. <>
17. Givens, J. R., Andersen, R. N. (1975) Letter: Serum testosterone in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 121(8), 1124–1125. <>
18. González-González, J. G., Mancillas-Adame, L. G., Fernández-Reyes, M., Gómez-Flores, M., Lavalle-González, F. J., Ocampo-Candiani, J., Villarreal-Pérez, J. Z. (2009) Androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance in young men. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 71(4), 494–499. <>
19. Govind, A., Obhrai, M. S., Clayton, R. N. (1999) Polycystic ovaries are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait: Analysis of 29 polycystic ovary syndrome and 10 control families. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84(1), 38–43. <>
20. Kaliyadan, F., Nambiar, A., Vijayaraghavan, S. (2013) Androgenetic alopecia: an update. Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 79, 613–625. <>
21. Legro, R. S. (2000) Is there a male phenotype in polycystic ovary syndrome families? J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 13, 1307–1309 (Suppl. 5).
22. Lenarcik, A., Bidzińska-Speichert, B., Tworowska-Bardzińska, U., Krępuła, K. (2011) Hormonal abnormalities in first-degree relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Endokrynol. Pol. 62(2), 129–133.
23. Lunde, O., Magnus, P., Sandvik, L., Høglo, S. (1989) Familial clustering in the polycystic ovarian syndrome. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 28(1), 23–30. <>
24. Martinez-Jacobo, L., Villarreal-Villarreal, C. D., Ortiz-López, R., Ocampo-Cadiani, J., Rojas-Martínez, A. (2018) Genetic and molecular aspects of androgenetic alopecia. Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 84(3), 263–268. <>
25. Matilainen, V., Koskela, P., Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2000) Early androgenetic alopecia as a marker of insulin resistance. Lancet 356(9236), 1165–1166. <>
26. O’Reilly, M. W., Kkempegowda, P., Jenkinson, C., Taylor, A. E., Quanson, J. L., Storbeck, K. H., Arlt, W. (2017) 11-oxygenated C19 steroids are the predominant androgens in polycystic ovary syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 102(3), 840–848. <>
27. Sanke, S., Chander, R., Jain, A., Garg, T., Yadav, P. (2016) A comparison of the hormonal profile of early androgenetic alopecia in men with the phenotypic equivalent of polycystic ovarian syndrome in women. JAMA Dermatol. 152(9), 986–991. <>
28. Šimková, M., Vítků, J., Kolátorová, L., Vrbíková, J., Vosátková, M., Včelák, J., Dušková, M. (2020) Endocrine disruptors, obesity and cytokines – How relevant are they to PCOS? Physiol. Res. 69, S279–S293 (Suppl. 2). <>
29. Skiba, M. A., Bell, R. J., Islam, R. M., Karim, M. N., Davis, S. R. (2020) Distribution of body hair in young Australian women and associations with serum androgen concentrations. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 105(4), dgaa063. <>
30. Slominski, A., Manna, P. R., Tuckey, R. C. (2015) On the role of skin in the regulation of local and systemic steroidogenic activities. Steroids 103, 72–88. <>
31. Stárka, L., Hill, M., Poláček, V. (2000) Hormonal profile in men with premature androgenic alopecia. Sb. Lek. 101(1), 17–22. (in Czech)
32. Stárka, L., Čermáková, I., Dušková, M., Hill, M., Doležal, M., Poláček, V. (2004) Hormonal profile of men with premature balding. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 112(1), 24–28. <>
33. Stárka, L., Dušková, M., Čermáková, I., Vrbíková, J., Hill, M. (2005) Premature androgenic alopecia and insulin resistance. Male equivalent of polycystic ovary syndrome? Endocr. Regul. 39, 127–131.
34. Stein, I. F., Leventhal, M. L. (1935) Amenorhea associated with bilateral polycystic ovaries. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 29, 181–186. <>
35. Storbeck, K. H., Bloem, L. M., Africander, D., Schloms, L., Swart, P., Swart, A. C. (2013) 11β-hydroxydihydrotestosterone and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone, novel C19 steroids with androgenic activity: A putative role in castration resistant prostate cancer? Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 377(1–2), 135–146. <>
36. Turcu, A. F., Nanba, A. T., Auchus, R. J. (2018) The rise, fall, and resurrection of 11-oxygenated androgens in human physiology and disease. Horm. Res. Paediatr. 89(5), 284–291. <>
37. Vrbíková, J., Bendlová, B., Hill, M., Vaňková, M., Vondra, K., Stárka, L. (2002) Insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Care 25(7), 1217–1222. <>
38. Zouboulis, C. C. (2009) The skin as an endocrine organ. Dermatoendocrinol. 1(5), 250–252. <>
front cover

ISSN 1214-6994 (Print) ISSN 2336-2936 (Online)