Prague Med. Rep. 2021, 122, 140-180

Valproate-associated Movement Disorder: A Literature Review

Jamir Pitton Rissardo1, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara1, Ícaro Durante2

1Department of Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Passo Fundo, Brazil

Received February 21, 2020
Accepted August 22, 2021

Valproate (VPA) was first synthesized in 1882, but it was only in the early 1960s that its anticonvulsant properties were discovered. The aim of this literature review is to evaluate the clinical epidemiological profile, pathological mechanisms, and management of VPA-associated movement disorder (MD). Relevant reports in six databases were identified and assessed by two reviewers without language restriction. A total of 138 reports containing 362 cases of subjects who developed a MD secondary to VPA were reported. The MD identified were parkinsonism (PKN) (252), myoclonus (MCL) (54), dystonia (DTN) (17), dyskinesia (DKN) (16), stutters (4), tics (3), akathisia (AKT) (1). In the not clearly defined group, 15 extrapyramidal symptoms, 3 AKT, 2 DTN, 1 rigidity, 1 unstable gait were assessed. The mean and median age was 55.8 (SD: 16.58) and 61 years (range: 4–87 years). The most common VPA-indication was epilepsy, and 51.36% were males. The mean and median time from the VPA start to the MD onset was 32.75 (SD: 30.05) and 21.15 months (range: 1 day – 20 years). The mean and median time from the VPA withdrawal until the MD recovery was 2.89 (SD: 2.79) and 3 months (1 day – 12 months). The most common management was drug withdrawal. A complete recovery was obtained in 80.61%. VPA-associated MD was extensively reported in the literature. PKN was the most well-described. Future studies need to clearly report the clinical history of the patient, considering the full investigation of other adverse events during their entire life.


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